Matthew Fontaine Maury Monument
The Matthew Fontaine Maury Monument was designed by F. William Sievers, the sculptor who had previously created the "Stonewall" Jackson Monument. Maury's monument was unveiled in 1929. The piece consists of granite pedestal, a bronze sculpture of Maury in a seated position, and a large bronze globe. The inscription below Maury labels him "Pathfinder of the Seas," a tribute to his work on sea navigation and research in oceanography, as well as his role as a Confederate naval officer.
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson Monument
F. Williams Sievers designed Richmond's “Stonewall” Jackson Monument (Sievers would later design the Matthew Fontaine Maury Monument as well). This statue was erected in October 1919. Sievers originally wanted the statue to face south, toward the majority of oncoming traffic, but he was overruled by veterans, who wanted the statue to face north, toward Jackson's Union opponents. Following the violent white supremacist demonstration in nearby Charlottesville in August of 2017, two great-great-grandsons of Jackson have called for the removal of this and other Confederate monuments from public spaces in an open letter (link below).
Jefferson Davis Monument
Architect William C. Noland and sculptor Edward V. Valentine designed Richmond's Jefferson Davis monument, erected in 1907 to honor the president of the Confederate States of America. Around this time period, several Confederate monuments were constructed in Richmond. As historian William Cooper Jr. puts it, Richmond was not only the "former capital of the Confederacy," but also "the capital of its memory." The monuments to Davis and other Confederate leaders along Monument Avenue represent white Southerners' efforts to promote the values and institutions of the Confederacy, despite its defeat decades ago.
General Robert E. Lee Monument
As the cornerstone of Richmond’s Monument Avenue Historic District, the Robert E. Lee Monument is the first and largest of the monuments along the district’s thoroughfare. This statue, designed by Jean Antoine Mercie and cast in four sections, was dedicated during a Confederate reunion to a crowd of 10,000 on May 29, 1890. The Robert E. Lee Monument became the unofficial center of Richmond. During the next 30 years, five more Confederate monuments were erected along Monument Avenue, creating the nation’s only surviving grand, residential boulevard with monuments of its scale remaining largely unaltered. Since the erection of the Robert E. Lee Monument, controversy has continued to surround the existence of Monument Avenue in regards to its promotion of the Lost Cause ideology. The City of Richmond is actively reevaluating the social perception of Monument Avenue in an effort to appropriately interpret its monuments. Richmond’s Monument Avenue was designated a Virginia Landmark on December 2, 1969, added to the National Register of Historic Places on February 16, 1970, and designated a National Historic Landmark on December 3, 1997.