Bouton continued his family business and ran the farm on his land, he would go on to serve as President of the Virgil Agricultural Society. Bouton also worked in education in an array of different positions. He first taught at the Virgil Literary Institute before also serving as a principal, inspector and commissioner. Bouton also served the community in a variety of different positions outside of education. He was the towns' superintendent, and active member of the board of supervisors, he also went on to join the state legislature in 1857.
Bouton was also a very religious man. He was a deacon at his local Presbyterian ministry and also served as the Church clerk for over 50 years. His faith also inspired him to be a social advocate for his community. He was a member of a larger abolitionist community in Virgil and his home was a stop on the underground railroad. Bouton even had a series of tunnels implemented underneath the family farm to assist runaway slaves in going North to Canada. Nathan Bouton also produced historical work and completed a history of the town of Virgil in 1878, titled Festal Gathering of the Early Settlers and Present Inhabitants of the Town of Virgil, Cortland County NY. He sadly died a week after the completion of this work. Bouton was the embodiment of being jack-of-all-trades, he served his community of Virgil in a vast amount of different ways, and as a result his legacy will live on in the community forever.