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The Battle of Round Mountain was the first battle in the Trail of Blood on Ice campaign for the control of Indian Territory. This battle is one of many included in the American Civil War. It occurred on November 19, 1861 around Yale, Oklahoma. The battle started because of the differences between Colonial Douglas H. Cooper and Chief Opothleyahola. The ending of this battle resulted in a victory for the Confederates.

  • Battle of Round Mountain Map

     Colonial Douglas H. Cooper was the Confederate commander of the Indian Department who could not reconcile differences with Chief Opothleyahola.  Chief Opothleyahola commanded a band of Unionist Creeks and Seminoles.  On November 15, 1861 Cooper set out with 1,400 men in order to drive Chief Opothleyahola and his people from the land.  When the men reached Chief Opothleyahola's camp they found that it had been deserted.  On November 19, Cooper received information through captured prisoners that part of Opothleyahola's band was building a fort at the Red Fork of the Arkansas River.
     When Cooper's men arrived at the Red Fork of the Arkansas River a cavalry charge was ordered by Cooper.  Once again they found a recently abandoned camp.  A few people wondering around away from the camp were found and followed.  Cooper's men were led right to Opothleyahola's band at the Round Mountains area.  The band immediately fired shots at the Confederates and chased them back to the main Confederate force.  There was a short fight but it was getting dark and Opothleyahola's men caught the field on fire and retreated back to their camp.
     On November 20, 1861 Cooper and the Confederates left in search of the new camp but it was also left abandoned.  A field of graves, twelve wagons, flour, sugar, salt, and cattle were found at Salt Creek.  The Confederates claimed victory because Opothleyahola and his men had left the area.  By the end of the year they were forced to leave Indian Territory and go to Kansas.  The Confederate lost one captain and five men, one wounded, and one missing.  Opothleyahola lost about one hundred and ten men total. 

"Battle of Round Mountain," accessed November 2, 2014, "Battle of Round Mountain," accessed November 2, 2014, "Round Mountain," accessed November 2, 2014,