The village is comprised of six Colonial-style brick homes which were constructed in 1988 for married student housing. The residences went largely unused, and their convenience made them the school's first choice for use in the establishment of the Ecovillage. The homes and the land surrounding them underwent renovations, the majority of which took place from 2002-03, with the Ecovillage being opened and dedicated in January 2005 shortly before the spring semester. The renovations included the addition of greenhouses, storehouses, small sheds, and more housing options for families, allowing the village to house around 50 families in all. Over time, the village has since undergone additional renovations, with the college adding an information center, a water treatment facility, a natural building shelter, a commons house, and a child development laboratory. Perhaps the most notable addition to the Ecovillage, however, is the Jackson L. Oldham Ecological Machine. According to the college's brochure on the Ecovillage,
The ecological machine consists of a series of tanks that provide optimal
conditions for bacteria, snails, plants, fish, and other aquatic organisms to consume
organic wastes, converting waste water into odor-free, swimmable-quality water. The
greenhouse-like environment is also an excellent classroom for teaching biology,
chemistry, and other sciences.
The ecological machine can process up to 10,000 gallons of sewage a day,
which—after flowing through a subsurface wetland and passing through an
ultraviolet sterilizer—returns to a majority of Ecovillage buildings to flush toilets.
Because much of the waste water from the Ecovillage community flows into the
ecological machine, which contains living organisms, residents are taught to not use
bleach, antibacterial soaps, or other products that may harm the organisms and
decrease the ecological machine’s effectiveness.
Within the village, each family grows their own food and operates solar panels to help power the community while also taking care of their own waste. In addition, each family helps create, distribute, and use green cleaning products and also takes part in composting. The village challenges each family to reduce their energy usage by 75% as well as urging the community as a whole to reduce their per capita water use by 75%, the latter of which is achieved by the village's innovative water innovation system which contributes to landscape irrigation for the residents' crops. The college also urges residents to purify waste and sewage to swimmable quality while also having each of them sign a pledge to recycle and compost over 50% of their daily waste in addition to teaching others to do the same.
In line with the original goal of the village, to provide housing to students with children, Berea College also offers a Child Development Laboratory and Daycare located within the limits of the village. At the facility, officials provide childcare and education for up to 118 students, with many of the center's staff members being made up of other Berea College students, especially those studying ecology, who help maintain the village and teach the children about sustainable living.