Once the courthouse was built, it became an important focal point for the city. It was a campaign stop for candidates seeking state and national office, including Harry Truman, John F. Kennedy, and other Presidential candidates. No major court trials occurred here. In 1969, the county government vacated the courthouse and moved to another building. There were plans to demolish it but the cost of doing so was too high.
As a result, the county leased the old courthouse to an organization called the Conrad Baker Foundation, which worked to restore and open it for public use. The foundation, which changed its name in 1990 to the Old Courthouse Preservation Society, operated it until 2000. The county assumed ownership once again under the Vanderburgh County Board of Commissioners. Another organization, the Old Courthouse Foundation, and the county jointly manage and work to restore and preserve the building.