The 1762 Bethlehem waterworks system is thought to be the first municipal water pumping system created in the United States. Designed by Johann Christopher Christensen, the first system was built in 1755 but had to be rebuilt due to systemic flaws. The 1762 waterworks served the Bethlehem community until 1832 when steam-powered pumps replaced those powered by water. While the original building still stands, the internal machinery, including the 18-foot diameter water wheel, has been replicated. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1981 and it is also listed as a Historic Civil Engineering Landmark and an American Water Landmark.
1750s, the Moravian community of Bethlehem had grown to a population of several
hundred after its founding in 1741.
Situated along the banks of the Monocacy Creek, citizens labored daily
to haul drinking and washing water from the creek up the bluff to their
homes. For this reason and fire safety,
the community contacted local engineer, Johann Christensen, to design a water
pumping system similar to the ones utilized in his native Germany. What he designed and implemented became the
first public water system to utilize a pumping system (Boston’s, designed in
1652, was solely a gravity system) in American history.
system utilized a spring along the Monocacy to supply the community with water
and water from the creek to spin his water wheel which, in turn, powered the
pumps. These pumps pushed water through
wooden pipes 320 feet and 94 vertical feet to a holding tank where the Central
Moravian Church now sits. From there,
gravity carried water to cisterns located throughout the community. Christensen’s 1755 system had to be rebuilt
due to pipes bursting under excessive water pressure and the improper
positioning of the waterwheel. Thus, the
1762 version was created using an 18-foot diameter wheel and three
single-action force pumps of cast iron all housed in the 24-foot square
pumphouse that still stands.
continued to expand and improvements were made as the years passed. In 1786, the wooden pipes were replaced with
lead which were, in turn, replaced with iron pipes in 1813. Christensen’s waterworks served Bethlehem until
1832 when steam-powered pumps were utilized in the adjacent oil mill. The waterworks building was then later
utilized as a private residence and garage before being acquired by Historic
Bethlehem Museums and Sites.
1950s, the area that is now Bethlehem’s Colonial Industrial Quarter, considered
one of America’s earliest industrial parks, had become an overgrown scrapyard. Archeological work in the area began in the
1960s which was followed by clean-up and restoration efforts. The waterworks building was restored in the
1970s and its internal mechanisms were re-created using 1767 drawings that were
located in the Moravian Archives in Herrnhut, Germany. Its undershot waterwheel features a two-foot
diameter hub and is comprised of six sections of 48 fins each. This recreated waterwheel was installed in 1992.
Today, the waterworks
is part of the larger Bethlehem Colonial Quarter and continues to be operated and
maintained by the nonprofit Historic Bethlehem Museums and Sites. Recent efforts have been directed to preventing
the near annual flooding of the waterworks as well as the surrounding
buildings. The waterworks is open for
special events throughout the year.