Aronson left Arkansas around the turn of the century for New York, where he became involved with the old Vitagraph Company, a theatrical group. In 1903, he was cast in Edwin S. Porter’s film, The Great Train Robbery, a classic silent western. In his early films, he played various roles under the name G. M. Anderson.
Aronson moved to Chicago to produce films in 1907, where he developed the idea that the public would pay to see good western movies. With George K. Spoor, a theatrical booking agent, he established Essanay Studios (the name comes from a phonetic spelling of their initials, S and A). In 1908, Aronson married Molly Louise Schabbleman, and the couple had one child, Maxine.
From 1908 to 1915, Aronson made 375 westerns, the most famous of these being the Broncho Billy series. In 1912, he established a studio in Niles, California, where he turned out a two-reel Broncho Billy story approximately every two weeks. The films cost approximately $800 per movie to produce, and each grossed approximately $50,000.
Many legendary Hollywood stars worked at Essanay—Francis X. Bushman, one of the leading stars of his day, Gloria Swanson, and Charlie Chaplin. The heydey of the two-reel westerns ended and Aronson eventually sold his interest in Essanay in 1916.
In 1958, Aronson was awarded an honorary Oscar by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences for his contribution to the development of motion pictures as entertainment. He lived in quiet retirement for most of his remaining years but surfaced again to receive his honorary Oscar. He died in Pasadena, California, on January 20, 1971, of a heart attack.