In the following decades, settlers began to arrive, establishing homesteads. Conflict arose between them and the Indian tribes as well as between themselves. The U.S. Army established Fort Garland in 1852 (it was originally called Fort Massachusetts) to keep the peace. Buffalo soldiers (African American soldiers) were among the troops stationed at the fort. One of the homesteads, the Trujillo Homestead, is a national historic landmark and is located within the park. The Old Spanish National Historic Trail, which preserves the trail from Santa Fe to Los Angeles, passes through the park.