Lowndes County itself was created on January 30, 1830. The area of land where Lowndes County sits has historically been an agricultural hub, primarily based in cotton due to early European settlement in the 1800s. The City of Columbus in Lowndes County makes up one of three points of the Golden Triangle, a region in Mississippi that is known for robust economic development. The triangle's other points are defined by Starkville in Oktibbeha County and West Point in Clay County.
The Lowndes County Courthouse also has a unique history that is linked to the county and the state of Mississippi. During the Civil War, Jackson, the capital of Mississippi, fell to Union soldiers. When this occurred, the Mississippi Legislature chose to meet at the Lowndes County Courthouse. This unique occurrence gives the courthouse a significant history that extends outside of the county itself, impacting the State of Mississippi as a whole.