The Tilton Downtown Historic District of Tilton, NH, represents a collection of some of the town’s most influential buildings, whose origins span the 19th and 20th centuries. Largely influenced by Charles E. Tilton, from whom Tilton got its name, the District stands as a fantastic record of the town’s storied past and offers an incredible snapshot into the daily lives, luxuries, and business of Tilton’s past citizens.
The Town of Tilton began its
history as a neighborhood of the Town of Sanbornton known as Sanbornton
Bridge. Sanbornton Bridge had the
makings of a future commercial district, with a central road located aside the
Winnipesaukee River. Sanbornton itself
was founded shortly after the French and Indian War, with the original settlers
organizing the construction of a road from nearby Canterbury, New
Hampshire. Following the laying of the
road, the original Sanbornton Bridge was constructed, which would continue to
serve the town until the 20th century.
Mills were the backbone of
the riverside town, with the first mills being constructed in 1765 and 1766
near the Sanbornton Bridge. Main Street
was properly structured and designated as a public highway in 1772. Interestingly, most of the major roads in
Tilton, Sanbornton, and Franklin (the three towns that Sanbornton split into
over the last two centuries) to this day still correspond to the roads that
branched off of Main Street.
Main Street became an
important district for commerce and industry, with a number of businesses
rising around it throughout the late 1700s and the early 1800s. For decades, though, Sanbornton Bridge was
simply a small neighborhood of the much larger Sanbornton. It was the rise of a number of textile mills and
other mills. These mills brought
business and new citizens to Sanbornton Bridge.
Sanbornton Bridge was
transformed in the mid-1800s by Charles Tilton’s investments in the Boston, Concord, and Montreal Railroad. Sanbornton Bridge became the home of a
railroad station for the line, which helped further establish the town as a
center of its own. In the decades
following the construction of the railroad station, a number of public
buildings were funded and constructed along Main Street. A number of churches rose around this time as
well, including the Methodist Church and the Congregational Church.
In the late 1800s, Sanbornton
Bridge declared its independence from Sanbornton and incorporated as Tilton,
named in honor of Nathaniel and Charles Tilton.
Tilton gained a number of new mills throughout the decades following its
incorporation as an independent town.
The commercial district flourished and many of the older buildings were
renovated. This wave of restructuring is
the reason that much of the Historic District now is comprised of post-Civil
War structures, many in the Victorian architectural style, which was growing
incredibly popular in the area at the time.
Charles E. Tilton’s influence on the town is most visible in the
buildings that he funded at the turn of the century. Tilton funded the Tilton Town Hall, the
Statue of America, the Charles E. Tilton block, and the Alfred Tilton Block, in
addition to a number of public parks in the area. Charles E. Tilton’s development of the town would prove to be the
greatest period of thriving and growth for the town.
The 20th century was a
quieter century for the city of Tilton, though the notable construction of the
World War I Monument did occur in 1919.
Unfortunately, a number of the buildings that originally stood along
Main Street were either demolished or severely renovated prior to the District’s addition to the
National Register of Historic Places.
Lost buildings include the Railroad Station, the Methodist Church, and
the Hotel Loverin.
efforts have ensured that many key buildings of the old commercial district
still remain to this day. The buildings
included within the Historical District are listed in detail below, as numbered
in the official documentation:
1. Copp Gristmill
The Copp Gristmill, named
after its owner and commissioner Hazen Copp, was constructed in 1872. The mil still retains some of its original
styling to this day, despite undergoing a significant renovation in the
1960s. The greatest changes to the
building involved the removal of some of the windows and the modification of
other windows, as well as the addition of a modern-styled fire escape along one
side of the building. The Copp Gristmill
is still home to segments of original clapboarded exterior, the original gable
roof, and one remaining original window.
2. Copp Mill No. 3
Another mill belonging to
and commissioned by Hazen Copp, Mill No. 3 lies to the west of the Copp
Gristmill and was built in 1877.
Partially due to an 1889 renovation which added another floor to the
mill, Copp Mill No. 3 stands a full two stories above its predecessor. Though Mill No. 3 did not remain a mill for
much of its life, having been converted into a shoe factory during its 1889
renovation, its original appearance was preserved considerably well. The siding, doors, and windows of the lower
stories were updated throughout the late 1900s, but the interior has remained
unchanged. Additionally, no changes to
the layout of the building have been undertaken since 1889.
3. Meserve’s Store
The exact date of
construction of Meserve’s Store is unknown, but estimates based on photographs have placed
its construction date sometime between
1859 and 1883. Originally, Meserve’s Store was a two and a half story building, but a
third story was added in the early 1920s as an expansion of the store
space. Though not particularly ornate,
the storefront has been maintained in its original stylings, though the current
storefront is not the same storefront as the building had at construction.
4. Copp Block
The Copp Block represents
another piece of Tilton’s downtown commissioned by Hazen Copp. It was built in 1894 to house a store and,
similarly to its neighbors on the street,
was renovated in the early 1900s in order to add a third story to the store and
again in 1982. The 1982 renovation added
a porch and removed the original storefront.
These two exterior renovations make the Copp Block particularly unique
in that all three of its floors now represent completely different time
periods. Copp Block stands out among its
neighbors in that it is the more ornate of the shops along Main Street,
featuring architectural flourishes few other buildings nearby have.
5. Page Block
Another building with an
unsure date of construction, it was likely built around the same time as
Store. Page Block’s exterior has been
heavily changed from its original appearance, though the storefront still
maintains some of its original features.
The interior has been preserved
reasonably well, but, unfortunately, the Page Block’s exterior
appearance has largely been lost to time.
6. Bryant and Lawrence, Inc.
Much like Page Block and
Store, the specific date of construction of Bryant and Lawrence, Inc. is unknown, though it is known to
have been business a considerable amount of time before 1881 but after
1859. One of the most interesting facts
about this building is the fact that the same firm has operated in the building
since 1882. The Bryant and Lawrence
building was changed at various times through the early 1900s, though it was
restored to its original appearance in 1971, following older photographs as
blueprints for the restoration. It is
now an almost perfect match for its appearance in the 19th century.
7. Trinity Episcopal Church
Designed by notable
architect Edward Dow of Concord, NH, the Episcopal Church was designed
following the conventions of the Gothic Revival style of church design. The construction of the Trinity Episcopal
Church took approximately one year, starting in 1872. Interestingly, the iconic wooden spire of the
Church, which towers above the Town of Tilton, was not present at its
construction. The tower for the spire
was built, but the spire was not actually added for nearly a decade.
Almost no additions or
modifications have been made to the building, save for an early 1900s addition
of a furnace room and kitchen to the back of the building. As a result of its impeccable preservation,
Trinity Episcopal Church stands as one
of the best Gothic Revival churches in New Hampshire.
8. Charles E. Tilton Block
A Victorian-style commercial
building with an out-of-character Classical-styled bank front punctuating its
appearance, the Charles E. Tilton Block has been preserved reasonably well, in
spite of the addition of the Classical front.
The Block was originally built in 1886 at the commission of Charles E.
Tilton, though it was later sold and split into two halves, each occupied by
different businesses. The bank that took
control of the western half, the Citizens National and Iona Savings Bank, chose
to remodel the front of the building in 1926 to the Classical style now
displayed. The upper stories and the
eastern half, however, have gone largely unchanged, minus a change in the paint
coloration on the eastern side.
As a result, the Charles E.
Tilton Block is a strange, but relevant building that displays well-preserved
aspects from the early 1900s and the late 1800s.
9. Bank Block
Another building renovated
in the Classical style by the Citizens National Bank and the Iona Savings Bank,
the Bank Block was originally a humble building that was small in comparison to
the buildings next to it. It was
repeatedly expanded or renovated, with the most significant being the addition
of a detailed Classical Style front in the early 1900s.
Much like the Charles E.
Tilton Block, both the Victorian and Classical aspects of the building are
well-preserved and high-quality, meaning that it is an unconventional mixture
of odd appearance that is still historically relevant in regards to
10. Alfred Tilton Block
Constructed in 1887, just
one year after the construction of the Charles E. Tilton Block, this brick Victorian-style
commercial building was given by Charles E. Tilton to his son Alfred. The Alfred Tilton Block represents one of the
finer buildings on Main Street, having considerably more flourish and
decoration than its neighbors. The Block
underwent significant restoration during the 1980s under the commission of Iona
Savings Bank, who had hoped to correct what few changes did occur to the Block
over the years.
Congregational Church holds the prestigious position of oldest surviving
building on Main Street. The Church was
constructed in 1838 and has undergone surprisingly little exterior change. The two major changes, which occurred in the
late 1800s, came in the form of the raising of the Church by one story to add a
vestry and the extension of the central sections of the Church. These renovations maintained the style of the
church, and were only intended to add more functional space for the
12. Tilton Block
The Tilton Block (not to be
confused with the Charles E. Tilton and Alfred Tilton Blocks,) was constructed
for Charles E. Tilton’s other son, Charles Jr, in
1915. It features four independent
storefronts on Main Street which are decorated by ornamental strips of vertically-laid
bricks. One of the more simplistic
structures in the Historic District, the Tilton Block is likely to be more
interesting to historians looking for a glimpse into everyday commerce in the early
1900s than to visitors looking to be entertained by ornament.
13. Loverin Block
The Loverin Block stands on
the site of one of Tilton’s previously most
recognizable features: the Hotel Loverin.
The Hotel burned to the ground in July of 1903 and the Block was built
in its stead a year later at the commission of J.L. Loverin. With six storefronts on Main Street included
in the Loverin Block, it is one of the wider buildings on the street. J.L. Loverin intended to rebuild the hotel in
the vacant lot beside the new Loverin Block, but this project was never
undertaken. As a result, the eastern
side of the Loverin Block was never improved in appearance. The building that now stands in the
once-vacant lot next to the Loverin Block is exempted from inclusion in the
14. Tilton Town Hall
Completing construction in
1880, the Tilton Town Hall was paid for in full by Charles E. Tilton to serve
the town. Interestingly, Tilton citizens
did not vote to accept the gift – and
its conditions – until a few months after
the Tilton Town Hall’s construction. One of the conditions of the gift, perhaps
speaking better to Charles E. Tilton’s
desire for immortalization via monument than anything else in the Town, was
that the Town accept to never change its name.
Charles E. Tilton’s gift to the city was a fantastic Victorian-style
public building that has been fantastically preserved to this day. Only a few minor modifications have ever been
made to the building, few of which would be noticeable to anyone not searching
for them specifically.
15. Tilton Inn
The Tilton Inn is a building
whose many modifications seem to tell more of a story than the architectural
features of the building itself. While
it is now a single building, the Tilton Inn was once two separate buildings
that neighbored one another. The dates
of construction of the buildings are unknown, though photographic analysis has
placed the time of their construction between the years of 1875 and 1879.
It is known that a fire in
June of 1875 burned the buildings that inhabited the lot previously to the
ground and that, sometime shortly thereafter, two buildings were raised in the
lot. The eastern building was
specifically constructed to be a hotel and underwent two major modifications
sometime in the early 1900s which added a story to the building and a two-story
porch. Finally, at some point between
1912 and 1923, the western building was purchased and connected to the eastern
Currently, the building
appears early 20th-century in style, and there is little to nothing that would
point to the buildings ever having been separate at all save for older
photographs of Main Street.
16. Veterans Square
Veterans Square contains two
important monuments that have brought character to the downtown for decades
each. The first of these monuments is
the Statue of America. Being presented
to the Town in 1872, the Statue of America belonged to a set of statues which
represented the “Four Continents of Earth.” Three of
these statues still stand today.
Interestingly, the Four Continents statues match two identical sets
which are located in Philadelphia and Louisiana. No artist has been credited on any of the
sets, though local newspapers noted that the set “was
purchased of an English artists of great repute.”
The Four Continents statues
were donated to the Town by Charles E. Tilton.
The Statue of America appears to be a Native American Princess dressed
in traditional feathered regalia. She
holds a bow in one hand and is standing over a carving of an alligator.