Reverend William Jackson House (New Bedford Black History Trail)
William Jackson was an African-American man who was born in Norfolk, Virginia during the early nineteenth century. Jackson grew up in the port city of Norfolk, Virginia and even served on a schooner as a young man. But, he soon found that the marine life was not the life for him and he entered the Baptist Church. Jackson studied to become a pastor and eventually found himself as a leading member of the Baptist church in New Bedford, Massachusetts. He led a group of ninety-five worshippers who broke from the Second Baptist Church to form their own congregation, the Salem Baptist Church, in 1858. In addition to serving as pastor, the Reverend Jackson was also a well-known figure on the underground railroad. During the American Civil War, he was appointed chaplain to the all African-American regiment from Massachusetts. His former home in New Bedford is now a private residence, but it is still an important landmark on the New Bedford Historical Society’s Black History Trail.
Backstory and Context
When William Jackson was born in Norfolk, Virginia, during the early nineteenth century, his father was working as a harbor pilot in the port. They were free African-Americans living in the southern part of the country. In 1831, the family moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. William worked on the schooner “Vandalia” when he was only sixteen years old. He suffered great hardship on the vessel. Soon after his return, Jackson entered the Baptist Church, where he studied to become a pastor. He was ordained as the minister of the Oak Street Baptist Church in Philadelphia in September 1842. He served as pastor at several churches in Philadelphia, New York and Delaware before he moved on to New Bedford, Massachusetts.
In the late 1850s, he was serving as the pastor of the Second Baptist Church on Middle Street. The Second Baptist Church was established in 1844, when members of the Third Christian Church (formerly the African Christian Church) withdrew from the congregation. Its first pastor was Reverend Thomas U. Allen. Reverend Jackson served as pastor for a brief time in 1851. A few years later, he returned to the post (1855) and led the congregation until another portion of the membership withdrew to form the Salem Baptist Church. In 1858, approximately 95 members of the Second Baptist Church left the parish to form the Salem Baptist Church. They were led by Reverend Jackson.
The American Civil War broke out while Reverend Jackson was serving as the pastor at the Salem Baptist Church. African Americans weren’t allowed serve in the military right away, but President Abraham Lincoln changed that law. In the Emancipation Proclamation (1863), he declared that black men, as long as they were capable, had the right to serve in the military. The first call for African-American soldiers came from Governor Andrew of Massachusetts. He established the 54th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. Reverend Jackson became chaplain of this regiment in 1863, and later became Chaplain of the 55th Regiment. It is widely held that Jackson was the first African-American commissioned as an Officer in the Army.
Once the war was over, Reverend Jackson returned to his parish and his home in New Bedford. Prior to the war, the home was also believed to be a station on the underground railroad. Jackson is well-known to have used his position and his home to harbor fugitive slaves. The home is situated on a very small parcel of land in New Bedford (only 0.155 acres). It is a colonial-style single-family house built approximately 1858. The exterior is clapboard, which was common construction for the time period. Currently, the home is used as a private residence and is not open for tours. It is listed as a landmark on the New Bedford Historical Society’s Black History Trail.
Parcel Lookup: 198 Smith Street. New Bedford Assessor's Office. Accessed August 12, 2017. http://www.newbedford-ma.gov/assessors/parcel-lookup/.
New Bedford Black History Trail. New Bedford Historical Society. Accessed April 14, 2017. http://nbhistoricalsociety.org/historic-trails/.