The subsequent 1890 Morrill Act forced the former Confederate states to establish separate colleges for African Americans or desegregate the colleges established under the 1862 Morrill Act. The Jim Crow states chose to establish sixteen black colleges and universities (i.e. the 1890 Land Grant Institutions) under the auspices of this latter Act. This second Act provides federal funding to 105 Historically Black Colleges and Universities that were established before 1964. Students and alumni of these institutions of higher learning played a pivotal role in the dismantling of Jim Crow and the passage of civil rights laws in the United States.