Formed in 1824, Rockdale Temple is the oldest Jewish congregation in Ohio and the oldest west of the Allegheny Mountains. Originally an Orthodox community, the congregation began to adopt the practices of the Reform movement in 1855. The congregation offers supplemental religious schooling for children and teenagers as well as Hebrew classes. Participation in social justice issues and the community is an important focus of the congregation.
The congregation moved to the current location in 1969. The first temple was built in 1836 at Sixth and Broadway in Cincinnati. A second temple was built on the same spot in 1852. In 1906, a large, Neoclassical temple was erected and the congregation remained there until the present one was constructed. The 1906 building no longer exists.