This marker indicates the location of a Deptford Culture archaeological site called Hackshaw. The Deptford Culture was an Early Woodland people who lived 2,000 years ago. To be more exact, they lived between 500 B.C. to 300 A.D.; this site has been dated to around 150 A.D. Deptford Culture reached from southeaster Alabama, through north and west central Florida, through east Georgia, and ending in southeastern South Carolina. Archaeological research has determined Deptford indians lived along the coast and in inland river valleys (up to 75-100 miles inland). They are known for their ceramics, which are often decorated with check patterns and are deep cylindrical containers. What makes this culture unique is that later cultures did not use Deptford sites, leaving them intact and providing a clearer picture of what life was like Deptford indians.


  • The historical marker. Photo by: Mark Hilton
    The historical marker. Photo by: Mark Hilton

Hackshaw was not occupied again until the 18th century when the Spanish built a brick kiln here in the mid-1700s. During the British occupation between 1763-1783 a governor's villa was constructed but was burned down during the Spanish attempt to retake Florida. After Spain ceded Florida to the United States in 1821, there was an attempt to establish a town called "New City" which would grown around a burgeoning railroad industry. As time went on, the first outlying African American community in Pensacola emerged. Residents worked in railroad and lumber industries until 1906 when a hurricane destroyed the industries. However, workers found employment in loading ships, fishing, and gathering shellfish.

Guy E. Gibbon & Kenneth M. Ames (eds.). Archaeology of Prehistoric Native America: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing Inc., 1998. 

"Hackshaw." The Historical Marker Database. Accessed January 12, 2017. http://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=72238.