Exxon Mobil World Headquarters
Exxon Mobil is a conglomerate of oil and gas companies that formed on November 30, 1999, by the merger between Exxon of New Jersey and Mobil of New York. As of 2015, Exxon Mobil is the 5th largest company worldwide in revenue and the 3rd largest publicly traded company by market capitalization. Exxon Mobil has the largest daily production of oil in the world. The company has faced heavy criticism in recent years for a number of oil spills and other environmental disasters. Chief among these incidents is the 1999 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in Alaska.
Backstory and Context
Exxon Mobill is a global company that operates Exxon, Mobil, Esso, and a variety of other companies in the oil business. Mobil is the retail gas brand primarily in California, Florida, New York, New England, the Great Lakes and the Midwest. Exxon is the retail gas brand in the rest of the United States, with a higher concentration of gas stations in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Texas and in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern states. Esso is the retail gas brand for the rest of the world except in Australia and New Zealand, where Mobil is used exclusively.
The upstream division of the company (oil exploration, extraction, shipping, and wholesale operations) accounts for around 70 percent of the companies total revenue. The company employs over 82,000 employees worldwide, with 4,000 of those employees in its Fairfax headquarters and 27,000 employees in its Houston headquarters.
Exxon Mobil was formed in 1999 by a merger of two oil companies, Exxon and Mobil; both companies are direct descendants of the John D. Rockefeller corporation, Standard Oil. Standard Oil, of which was established in 1870, reputation always suffered since an article in 1904, came out depicting the history of the company. After years of public tension, in 1911, the United States Supreme Court ordered Standard Oil to dissolve into 34 smaller companies and this is how Exxon and Mobil (known as Socony at that time) both formed. In 1955, Socony became Socony Mobil Oil Company and in 1966, became just Mobil Oil Company. On March 24, 1989, Exxon Valdez oil tanker struck Bligh Reef in the Prince William Sound, Alaska causing more than 11 million gallons of crude oil to spill. The spill was marked as the second largest oil spill in U.S. history, which caused Congress to pass the Oil Pollution Act of 1990.
In 1998, Exxon and Mobil agreed to merge and signed a $73.7 billion deal forming the present day company of Exxon Mobil Corp.; which is also the largest company on the planet. The merger was finally completed on November 30, 1999, after shareholders finally approved it. The merger was unique in such way that two of John D. Rockefeller's largest companies that originally had to separate because of the government re-formed. This resulted in the largest corporate merger in US history.
- Exxon Valdez Oil Spill
- On March 24, 1999, Exxon Valdez spill approximately 11 million gallons of crude oil into the Prince William Sound, Alaska. The tanker hit the Bligh Reef after the crew didn't pay proper attention to the radar. The third mate, who was controlling the ship at the time, failed to properly maneuver the vessel around the reef. March 24, 2014, NOAA scientists found that between 16,000 and 21,000 gallons of oil still remain on the beaches of the Prince William Sound.
- Greenpoint Oil Spill
- The Greenpoint oil spill was discovered by a U.S. Coast Guard helicopter doing a routine patrol. On September 1978, they discovered oil flowing into a creek. A study was done showing the spill amounting to more than 17 million gallons of crude oil. This spill is one of the largest spills ever recorded in the United States.
- Baton Rouge Refinery Benzene Leak
- On June 14, 2012, a bleeder plug on the tank failed and began leaking naphtha, a substance that is composed of many chemicals including benzene. The original report from Exxon Mobil stated that only 1,364 pounds of material were leaked. On June 18, they determined the spill was actually a level 2 incident classification and a more severe response was needed. On June 20, Exxon Mobil sent a notification stating that 28,688 pounds of benzene, 10,882 pounds of toluene, 1,100 pounds of cyclohexane, 1,564 pounds of hexane, and 12,605 pounds of additional volatile organic compound actually spilled.
- Baton Rouge Refinery Pipeline Oil Spill
- In April 2012, Exxon Corp Baton Rouge Refinery had a crude oil pipeline burst and spill around 80,000 gallons in the rivers of Point Coupee Parish, Louisiana. The facility shut down for a few days in response to the spill.
- Yellowstone River Oil Spill
- In July 2011, oil spilled from an Exxon Mobil pipeline running from Silver Tip to Billings, Montana. The pipeline ruptured about 10 miles west of Billings and it's estimated 750 to 1,000 barrels of oil spilled into the Yellowstone River for about 30 minutes before it was shut down. Laurel, Montana evacuate around 140 people from 12 AM to 4 AM as a precaution of a possible explosion.
- Mayflower Oil Spill
- On March 29, 2013, in Mayflower, Arkansas, an Exxon Mobil pipeline ruptured spill around 12,000 barrels of oil and causing 22 homes to be evacuated. The EPA classified the spill as "major spill."