The longest continually running sporting event in the United States is the Kentucky Derby. The world-famous thoroughbred horse race is held at the equally famous racetrack, Churchill Downs. Known as the most exciting two minutes in sports, the Kentucky Derby takes place the first Saturday in May each year at the Louisville racetrack. Churchill Downs officially opened in 1875 and is instantly recognizable by the twin spires atop the grandstands. Churchill Downs also is known for hosting the Kentucky Oaks and other thoroughbred horse racing and has hosted the Breeders’ Cup World Championship eight times.
Churchill Downs & the Kentucky
Today's Churchill Downs is a 146-acre facility
including the one-mile track and Bluegrass turf course, grandstand and
clubhouse, formal gardens, restaurant and banquet hall, and the two-floor
Kentucky Derby Museum. The track holds the record for the longest-running
continuous sporting event in the nation, with the first Kentucky Oaks, Derby,
and Clark Handicap races taking place in 1875. The Kentucky Derby, also known
as the Run for the Roses, has drawn as many as 170,000 people at a time to the
National Register of Historic Places listed Churchill Downs. With the
1895-built grandstand expanded to accommodate the crowds, the Downs have also
modernized by adding The Big Board, the world's largest 4k video screen. The
Kentucky Derby Museum features permanent and rotating exhibits, with 20,000
artifacts and library materials in its collection, including the Bolus Research
Collection in the Colonel Clark Library (accessible by appointment).
History of the
Kentucky Derby and Churchill Downs
From the beginning of Kentucky's
statehood, horses have played an important role in its economy, not only as a
means of transportation, but as a business and sporting venture. The first
organized racing began in Lexington in 1789 and spread as other tracks were
built across the state; less than a century later, however, in the 1870s, horse
farms struggled to find good prices for thoroughbreds as interest in Kentucky
racing waned. In 1872, Colonel Meriwether Lewis Clark visited England and
France, attending the Epsom Derby in the former nation and taking inspiration
from it to begin a Kentucky Derby at home, showcasing and reinvigorating the
Grandson of William Clark and
namesake of the explorer's partner, Meriwether Lewis, Colonel Clark was a
native Louisvillian, born only a few miles away from the site of the racetrack,
at the Blenheim estate established by his maternal great-grandfather, Armstead
Churchill (hence the track's name, which was not used until 1883). A longtime
enthusiast for horses and racing, Colonel Clark was quick to implement ideas
gained from his trip abroad upon his return to Louisville, setting up the
Louisville Jockey Club, organizing separate races for different ages and
classes of horses (including the Kentucky Derby and the Oaks, both names
borrowed from Epsom Downs races, and the Clark Handicap), and leased 80 acres
from his uncles John and Henry Churchill on which to build the track. The
original facilities comprised the clubhouse (which included living quarters for
Clark), grandstand, Porter's Lodge, six stables, and the track itself.
Louisville architect John Andrewartha designed the Carpenter's
Gothic style clubhouse.
The first Kentucky Derby opened the
track on May 17, 1875 to a crowd of 10,000, with Bonaventure winning the first
Oaks and Aristides winning the first Derby with African American jockey Oliver
Lewis. Since the original grandstand faced into the sun, the iconic,
twin-spired grandstand still present today was constructed on the opposite side
of the track in 1894-5, designed by Joseph D. Baldez. A new clubhouse replaced
the original, as well. However, by 1902, Churchill Downs was nearly bankrupt.
Louisville tailor Colonel Matt J. Winn (1861-1949) took over promotion as Vice
President of the track, achieving international prestige for Churchill Downs
and the Kentucky Derby and turning its first profit in 1903.
In 1910, the Churchill Downs infield
became the site of the first recorded flight in Kentucky; over the years, in
addition to races, the Downs also hosted state fairs, concerts, car and
airplane races, and military shows. The first radio broadcast of the Kentucky
Derby took place in 1925, and the first television broadcast in 1949. Triple
Crown winners who raced in Louisville included Sir Barton (1919), War Admiral
(1937), Secretariat (1973), and many others. James Sunny Jim
Fitzsimmons, an ex-jockey, trained two Triple Crown winners, Gallant Fox (1930)
and Omaha (1935). Ben A. Jones and his son Horace trained six Derby winners.
Isaac Murphy, an African American jockey, is considered one of the greatest
jockeys to ever race in the Derby, and held the first three-Derby victory
record until 1948. Eddie Arcaro broke the record with five Derby wins, and Bill
Hartack matched him.
The 1920s and the 1960s each saw
expansions to the clubhouse and grandstand to accommodate ever-increasing Derby
crowds, and the Kentucky Derby Museum was added in 1961 and expanded in 1982.