Battle of the Trough
The Trough -- South Branch of the Potomac River South of Romney (WV)
The Trough is a 6 mile long stretch of the South Branch of the Potomac River, north of Moorefield, West Virginia.
Inscription. Built on lands of Issac Van Meter who took up claim near Old Fields, 1735, and settled there, 1744, in chain of forts which Washington established. For a time it was garrisoned by British regulars. Near it was Battle of the Trough, 1756.
Backstory and Context
After the defeat of General Edward Braddock at the Battle of the Monongahela, white settlers of the Allegheny Mountains were largely unprotected from attack from Shawnee and Delaware Indians. In October two forts were raised in the North Branch Valley on Patterson Creek to help protect the white settlers of the area. Colonel George Washington ordered Captain Thomas Waggener to leave Fort Cumberland with his company and proceed up the South Branch. His orders directed him to construct two forts in the area above the rugged gorge known locally as "The Trough" and to station detachments accordingly to best protect the settlers on the upper South Branch.
That spring of 1756, after being defeated by Capt. Jeremiah Smith at the head of the Capon River two Indians from the defeated remnant force near the present day Cabins, West Virginia when encountered two white women. One of these they killed (tomahawked and scalped) outright and the other they took prisoner. The party then proceeded to the vicinity of Fort Pleasant at present day Old Fields and the lowermost of Waggener's two forts were the woman held prisoner escaped, or by some accounts was let go to draw the white men out of the fort.
The woman alerted the men about what had happened to her and where the Indians were camping. She stated that she did not encounter any other Indians within the area. The battle that occurred is best told by James Parsons who was a young participant in the battle:
“[The Indians]…divided into small squads and appointed a time and place of combining their force at a large spring at the lower end of the valley, a few miles below Fort Pleasant…. According to arrangement, a part of them made their appearance before that fort early in the morning and fired a few shots at the fort, and then marched off down the valley in full view.... Encouraged by the small number that made their appearance, spies were immediately sent out to ascertain if any other signs or trails could be discovered. They soon returned and reported that there was no other signs or trails, and that there could be plenty of men spared from the fort to follow and avenge the depredations recently committed by them. Immediate preparations were accordingly made for hot pursuit….
That morning, 16 or 18 well-armed and mounted white men moved out from the fort, and from Buttermilk Fort (Waggener's upper fort some five miles upstream), intending to attack the Indians. These men were said to be seasoned and tough Indian fighters. They soon dismounted and divided into two parties for a “pincer” approach and moved north behind the Indians into the rugged gorge known as “The Trough” for its steep and impassable slopes. Owing to a noisy dog, however, they soon completely lost the element of surprise.”
Losing the element of surprise and surprised to be outnumbered by 60 to 70 Indian warriors under the command of Shawnee chief Killbuck the 16 to 18 white men from the fort were forced to retreat back to Fort Pleasant. Seven of the white men were dead and four were wounded and only four Shawnee warriors were killed and several wounded. The Indians also confiscated all of the horses that the white men had brought to avenge the white woman. British Captain Waggener had failed to help the settlers even only being a mile and a half away. To add insult, some settlers called Captain Waggener a coward and were rounded up and whipped.