The second Blacksburg High School, built in 1916, stands behind the armory, and after the passing of the building's use for military training, used the armory as an auditorium. Until the 1960s it was the location of school and community events as varied as a speech clinic run by the Blacksburg Elementary School and performance by Grand Ole Opry singer Margaret Carson in the 1950s. Virginia Polytechnic Institute (the name of Virginia Tech from 1944 to 1970) and the town of Blacksburg jointly owned the building for a time around the 1960s.
The School of Visual Arts at Virginia Tech maintains offices and gallery space in the Armory. As part of the Arts Initiative, Virginia Tech renovated the space in 2007. The building's large mezzanine provides a setting for many art exhibitions while the rest of the building serves as secondary galleries, workspaces, and classrooms. The museum also offers a variety of exhibits drawn from the work of regional artisans, displays of faculty and student work, and exhibits of regional artists that were created as part of the university's Summer Arts Festival. The Armory Art Gallery is free and open to the public.