The Kitt Peak National Observatory is a national observatory located on Kitt Peak in the Quinlan Mountains. The Observatory holds 24 optical telescopes and 2 radio telescopes, making it the largest gathering of astronomical instruments in the world.
The need for a national observatory in the United
States blossomed around the rise of the Cold War and the launching of Sputnik
by the Soviet Union in 1957. At that point in time, astronomers only had access
to research materials through certain affiliated institutions, instead of a
centralized hub of research. With that in mind, a committee was formed to
create a national observatory, and a search soon began for the best possible
location to establish such an observatory in the United States. The search
continued for some time, but after surveying over 100 mountains as possible
candidates, a list of eleven sites in California, Arizona, and New Mexico was
Ultimately, Kitt Peak was selected due to a number of
factors, including consistently clear weather patterns, a steady atmosphere, a
high altitude with low humidity, little light pollution from the nearby city of
Tucson, and the exceptional astronomy program of the University of Arizona.
Once it had been decided on, the National Science Foundation began negotiations
with the Tohono O’odham Nation in order to gain permission to build the
Observatory on Kitt Peak, around the Nation’s ancestral homeland. An agreement
was reached in mid-1958, on the condition that the land was to be used solely
for the purpose of furthering research of astronomy. Since then, construction
and additions to the National Observatory has always been ongoing, and the Kitt
Peak National Observatory continues to add new equipment to further research
capabilities to this day.