Friends Hospital, founded as the Friends Asylum for the Relief of Persons Deprived of the Use of Their Reason, was the first private mental hospital in the United States that focused on humane mental health treatment.
Hospital, also known as the Friends Asylum for the Relief of Persons Deprived
of the Use of Their Reason or Friends Asylum for the Insane, was established in
1813. The purpose of the hospital was to
provide quality and professional health care to mentally ill patients. At this time, most mentally ill patients were
treated in municipal almshouses, private hospitals, or family homes. Although almshouses treated large volumes of
patients, these patients received inadequate treatment in unsanitary, poorly
equipped, and under staffed facilities.
Private hospitals, with typically 30 to 40 beds, treated small numbers
of patients, but were too expensive for the poor. To offset these deficiencies in health care,
many religious groups founded hospitals.
Many of these private sectarian hospitals treated only those deemed as
“hard-working and worthy poor” and refused treatment for paupers who were
better suited for the almshouses.
The Society of Friends of
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, were the first religious organization in the United
States to establish an institution specifically for the treatment of mentally
ill patients. The Pennsylvania Hospital
opened in 1752, but utilized the common practices of shackling, separation, and
deprivation for patients. In May 1817
the Quakers founded Friends Hospital as a mental treatment facility that
focused on humane and quality treatment of the mentally ill. Friends Hospital became the model for
nineteenth and early twentieth century facilities. It was also one of the first hospitals in the
United States to employ both male and female medical professionals.
Friends Hospital focused on mental
health rather than mental treatment.
Through utilizing the Quaker principle of moral treatment, Friends
practitioners aimed to treat all patients with respect, equality, and love to
promote total health. Patients were
treated through interactive groups, with twelve to twenty patients in each
group. These groups completed chores and
attended lectures and tea parties together to enhance socialization. Patients were able to intermingle and only
those who were a threat to themselves or others were restrained.
The hospital was a self-sustaining
campus with a church, a women’s school, a men’s school, art studios, gardens, gymnasium,
and libraries. Friends Hospital was
instrumental in changes in mental health treatment and institutions. With its promotion of acceptance of
psychiatric illnesses, Friends Hospital continues today as an influential
institution for mental health and treatment.