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As the cornerstone of Richmond’s Monument Avenue Historic District, the Robert E. Lee Monument is the first and largest of the monuments along the district’s thoroughfare. First proposed shortly after Lee’s death in 1870, it took twenty years before a monument honoring the late Confederate leader was erected. Richmond’s African American community strongly opposed erecting any monument supporting the Confederacy or its leaders, viewing Lee as a national traitor. Despite the monument’s opposition, the project was completed in 1890. The bronze equestrian statue of Lee astride his famous horse Traveller was designed by French sculptor Jean Antoine Mercie and cast in four sections. Constructed by African American laborers, ironically enough, the General Robert E. Lee Monument was officially unveiled on May 29, 1890 to a crowd estimated to be between 100,000 and 150,000. Col Archer Anderson, former Confederate military officer, delivered the keynote speech for this 61-foot-tall monument. Anderson contributed to the growing trend of idolizing the Confederacy and the Lost Cause ideology by praising Lee as a man of action and a hero of his home state of Virginia. During the next 30 years, five more Confederate monuments were erected along Monument Avenue, creating the nation’s only surviving grand, residential boulevard with monuments of its scale remaining largely unaltered. Since the erection of the Robert E. Lee Monument, controversy has continued to surround the existence of Monument Avenue in regards to its promotion and proliferation of racism the Lost Cause ideology. Presently, the City of Richmond has taken steps through community engagement to evaluate the impact of its Confederate monuments in order to more appropriately interpret these sites. Being a member of the Monument Avenue Historic District, the Robert E. Lee Monument was designated a Virginia Landmark on December 2, 1969, added to the National Register of Historic Places on February 16, 1970, and designated a National Historic Landmark on December 3, 1997.


  • General Robert E Lee led the Confederate Army during the Civil War.
  • Unveiling of the monument in 1890.
  • A post-unveiling image. Courtesy of the Virginia Historical Society
  • Antonin Mercie just prior to his death in 1916. Courtesy of Université de Caen Basse-Normandie from Caen, France - 1A1182101_283348LVI023
  • General Robert E. Lee Monument
  • Full-length of General Robert E. Lee in his Confederate uniform.
  • Mary Anna Randolph Custis Lee with son Robert E. Lee, Jr.
  • Robert E. Lee circa 1851.
  • Robert E. Lee circa 1838.
  • Robert E. Lee and son William Henry Fitzhugh "Rooney" Lee

The son of Major General Henry “Light-Horse Harry” Lee III, 9th Governor of Virginia and Anne Hill Carter, General Robert Edward Lee came from the prominent Lee family of Virginia. The Lees are now considered part of the First Families of Virginia, the elite and socially prominent families who settled Eastern Virginia. The earliest Lee descendent, Richard Lee, I, Esq. arrived in Virginia in 1639. Anne Hill Carter also came from an elite Virginia family, her great-grandfather being Robert “King” Carter, 25th Speaker of the Virginia House of Burgesses and Colonial Governor of Virginia. Born circa 1807, Robert endured a tumultuous childhood with the financial ruin and eventual abandonment by his father. Between 1825-1829, Robert attended and graduated from West Point Military Academy. From there, Lee served as an Officer for the US Corps of Engineers, a Captain in the Mexican-American War, returned again to West Point, then received a promotion to the second-in-command for the 2nd Cavalry Regiment in Texas. In 1831, Robert married Mary Anna Randolph Custis, the great-granddaughter of Martha Washington and her first husband Daniel Park Custis. Together, Robert and Mary had seven children. In 1857, Robert and Mary inherited the Arlington House plantation from her father George Washington Parke Custis. Arlington House sits atop a hill overlooking the Potomac River and Washington, D.C. (presently the site of Arlington National Cemetery). Lee’s subsequently poor treatment of the Custis slaves broke with the Washington family tradition of respecting and preserving slave families, which is indicative of the increasingly cruel conditions slaves lived under towards the middle of the 19th-Century. 

Between 1859-1861, Lee became involved in two crucial events that led to the Civil War: John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry and the succession of Texas from the Union. Being stationed in Texas when it seceded, Lee initially remained in the United States Army. But when President Abraham Lincoln asked Lee to lead the Union army, he declined the offer, citing loyalty to his "home country," which antebellum Americans would understand as a statement of loyalty to Virginia and Southern culture. In 1861, Lee accepted appointment as General of the Confederate Army. To date, Robert E. Lee is the only person to ever be offered command of two opposing armies. During the Civil War, Lee became well-known for his military strategy and organization. Lee quickly earned his men’s respected, as did opposing commanders. Despite greater challenges regarding material supplies and manpower, Lee won several crucial victories during the course of the war. The Confederate army failed to gain a secure foothold in the direction of the conflict, however, which led to its defeat. On April 8, 1865, Lee ended the Civil War by surrendering to Union General Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia. 

After the war, Lee became president of Washington College (now Washington and Lee) in Lexington, Virginia where he remained until his passing in 1870. Shortly after his death, two groups formed in Richmond, one of Confederate veterans and the other of prominent women, each aiming to erect its own monument to Lee in the city. Throughout the next decade, the two groups continued to raise funds alongside each other, but eventually became one unified group in 1886 by Virginia Governor Fitzhugh Lee, nephew of Robert E. Lee. The Lee Monument Association, as it came to be known, sought to replicate an image of Lee astride his horse Traveller from the painting by Adalbert Volck. A year later, Richmond decided on a parcel on land owned by the Allen family on which to place the Lee monument. Located to the west of the city, the monument location opened up new real estate opportunities on that side of Richmond. In 1887, the Association finally commissioned French sculptor Antonin Mercie for the job. It took Mercie three years to complete the statue.

In October 1887, thousands of Richmond residents gathered at the Allen property to witness the laying of the cornerstone for the General Robert E. Lee monument. Colonel Charles Marshall, Lee’s wartime staff officer, delivered the keynote speech during which he asked “What mean ye by this monument to an enemy of the Union which you teach us to cherish and defend?” Marshall continued with an explanation that Lee was actually a defender of the Union and the constitutional freedoms it provided before President Lincoln destroyed it. This perception of Lee as a savior of American freedom spread throughout white America and continues to exist into the present-day.

Mercie’s statue finally arrived from France on May 7, 1890 packaged in four separate crates. A crowd between 10,000 and 20,000 Richmonders helped haul the crates from the James River to the cornerstone on the Allen property. Constructed by African American laborers, ironically enough, the General Robert E. Lee Monument was officially unveiled on May 29 to a crowd estimated to be between 100,000 and 150,000. Col Archer Anderson, former Confederate military officer, delivered the keynote speech for this 61-foot-tall monument. Anderson contributed to the growing trend of idolizing the Confederacy and spreading the Lost Cause ideology by praising Lee as a man of action and a hero of his home state of Virginia. Anderson created an image of Lee that became a venerable and respectable representation of the American archetype of honor. While there were some negative media reactions to the General Robert E. Lee Monument, most were positive or neutral. The proliferation of the Lost Cause ideology had already taken root across the majority of white America.

However, not everyone agreed with the decision to honor Lee or were willing to entertain any justification behind such a monument. Several of Richmond’s city councilmen were African American and these men refused to vote for monument funds or support the initiative. John Mitchell, Jr. was one of the African American councilmen and editor for the Richmond Planetis quoted in the book Richmond’s Monument Avenueas saying, 

The men who talk most about the valor of Lee and the blood the brave Confederate dead are those who never smelt powder or engaged in battle. Most of them were at a table, either on top or under it when then war was going on… The capital of the late Confederacy has been decorated with emblems of the ‘Lost Cause,’ he editorialized, and the placement of the Lee statue handed down a ‘legacy of treason and blood’ to future generations. In another editorial Mitchell noted, “He [the African American] put up the Lee Monument, and should the time come, will be there to take it down. 

It would be another ten years before Richmond erected another Confederate monument. But in those ten years, the Lee monument became the unofficial center of Richmond. Between 1904 and 1930, five more Confederate monuments were placed along what came to be known as Monument Avenue. City planners utilized principles from the City Beautiful movement and Beaux Arts to create a grand, residential neighborhood surrounding this Confederate thoroughfare. Today, Monument Avenue is the nation’s only surviving grand, residential boulevard with monuments of its scale remaining largely unaltered. For that reason, the Monument Avenue Historic District was designated a Virginia Landmark on December 2, 1969, added to the National Register of Historic Places on February 16, 1970, and designated a National Historic Landmark on December 3, 1997.

Though some Confederate monuments were erected immediately following the American Civil War, there was a sharp increase in public art dedicated to the Confederacy in the late-19th and early-20th Centuries, particularly in the South. During this time, states were enacting oppressive, segregationist Jim Crow laws while the Ku Klux Klan (formed immediately after the Civil War) revived dramatically. Using these examples from history, many historians demonstrate that these Jim Crow Era monuments were not only intended to honor Confederate leaders and veterans, but were calculated to promote white supremacy in American society by public intimidation. Richmond, in particular, experienced an explosion of Confederate monuments during this time. Historian William Cooper, Jr. explained that Richmond was not only the former capital of the Confederacy but also "the capital of its memory." 

Reflecting the ways that historical interpretations change over time, many Southerners who reject the Lost Cause ideology and hope to create a more pluralistic society view Confederate monuments with great concern. From their perspective, the speeches given at dedication ceremonies by leaders of what had become a white-only Southern Democratic Party, as well as explicitly racist comments by Lee and other Confederate leaders during and after the war, provide evidence of their concerns. Since the erection of the General Robert E. Lee Monument and the subsequent development of Monument Avenue, controversy has continued to surround the city’s decision to honor the Confederacy and its racist history supported by the Lost Cause ideology In July 2017 Mayor Levar Stoney organized the Monument Avenue Commission to seek out public opinion regarding the perception and future of Monument Avenue. The ten-member group of individuals had expertise in American history, art history, architectural history, museum studies, community development, marketing, and leadership. The Commission released its findings a year later in August 2018, in which the group recommended adding permanent signage at every monument to offer modern and more inclusive interpretations of the sites. The Jefferson Davis Monument, however, was the only monument recommended to be removed altogether from Monument Avenue. Being a member of the Monument Avenue Historic District, the Robert E. Lee Monument was designated a Virginia Landmark on December 2, 1969, added to the National Register of Historic Places on February 16, 1970, and designated a National Historic Landmark on December 3, 1997.

Griego, Tina. Past and Present: The Many-Sided History of the Monument Avenue Debate. Richmond Magazine. June 25, 2015. June 3, 2019. https://richmondmagazine.com/news/news/monument-ave-history/. 

Driggs, Sarah Shields; Richard Guy Wilson; Robert P. Winthrop (2001). Richmond's Monument Avenue. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press.

Southern Poverty Law Center. "Whose Heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy." 2017. Accessed August 20, 2017. https://www.splcenter.org/sites/default/files/whoseheritage_splc.pdf.

The Washington Post. "The Day White Virginia Stopped Admiring Gen. Robert E. Lee and Started Worshiping Him." Accessed 13 September 2017. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/retropolis/wp/2017/08/22/the-day-white-Virginia-stopped-admiring...

Levin, Kevin M. What Richmond Has Gotten Right About Interpreting Its Confederate History. Smithsonian Magazine. May 18, 2017. June 3, 2019. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/what-richmond-has-gotten-right-about-interpreting-its-Confederate-history-180963354/.

Monument Avenue Historic District. National Park Service. June 3, 2019. https://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/richmond/monumentavehd.html.

127-0174 Monument Avenue Historic District. Virginia Department of Historic Resources. April 1, 2019. June 3, 2019. https://www.dhr.virginia.gov/historic-registers/127-0174/.

On Monument Avenue | "What Mean Ye By This Monument?". The American Civil War Museum. June 3, 2019. https://acwm.org/blog/monument-avenue-what-mean-ye-monument.

Blog. On Monument Avenue. June 6, 2019. https://onmonumentave.com.

Monument Avenue Commission Report. Monument Avenue Commission. July 2, 2018. June 6, 2019. https://static1.squarespace.com/static/594bdfc3ff7c502289dd13b3/t/5b3a821788251b63fef735f7/1530561059506/MonumentAvenueCommissionFINAL.pdf.

Cooper, William Jr. Jefferson Davis and the Civil War Era. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2008.
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