Enrolled Missouri Militia
In July 22, 1862 Governor Hamilton Gamble gave General John Schofield the order to organize a force to protect Missouri from guerillas and confederates raiding the State. General Schofield issued Order No. 19, which ordered every able-bodied man in Missouri to enlist in what became known as the Enrolled Missouri Militia (Mayes 2001). The Enrolled Missouri Militia consisted of multiple regiments. However, the largest group of regiments organized in St. Louis, Missouri (Ross 2004).
Backstory and Context
At the time Order No. 19 announced, there was already a federally funded Missouri State Militia. However, it was not able to handle the raiding confederates on their own, and the Enrolled Missouri Militia was created to support them (The Civil War in Missouri).
Members of the Enrolled Missouri Militia were not considered to be on active duty as they were only required to respond to guerilla activity when called, and otherwise continued living their daily lives and attending their jobs (Mayes 2001).
The Enrolled Missouri Militia was meant to guard supply depots, public building, military outposts and railroad bridges. However, they soon found themselves locating and attacking guerrilla groups as well as engaging in battle with the Confederate Army. This was problematic because the Enrolled Missouri Militia was not created for this purpose or trained to engage in battle (56th Regiment Enrolled Missouri Militia). The Enrolled Missouri Militia was also problematic for a variety of other reasons. They were not provided with uniforms until July 1863, almost a year after they were formed, and turned up in their civilian clothing prior to that. Additionally, they were not given enough arms, and were expected to provide their own. The Enrolled Missouri Militia also had food shortages and were encouraged to take things from disloyal civilians which became a practice that was often abused (The Civil War in Missouri). The major controversy with the Enrolled Missouri Militia is that men had to either enlist or declare their loyalty to the south. However, many men that were in fact loyal to the South refused to declare their loyalties and went forward with enlistment (Mayes 2001).
Ultimately, the Enrolled Missouri Militia was replaced by the Provisional Enrolled Missouri Militia. The Provisional Enrolled Missouri Militia was a full-time force and was made up of members from the Enrolled Missouri Militia who met other criteria, including being considered the most loyal Unionists (Ross 2004).
56th Regiment Enrolled Missouri Militia. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.capecounty.us/archivecenter/56 missouri militia.aspx.
Mayes, J. F. (2001, May 9). PDF.
Ross, K. (2004, January 16). Federal Militia in Missouri. Retrieved from http://www.civilwarstlouis.com/militia/federalmilitia.htm.
The Civil War in Missouri. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.civilwarmo.org/educators/resources/info-sheets/life-home-guard-and-enrolled-missouri-militia.
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