Capture of Jack Neal (1801)
Backstory and Context
The story began in Maryland in 1800/01. Jack Neal was a recently manumitted Maryland blacksmith. A white man, Bennett Rogers, was buying slaves to take south. Kidnapping Neal, Rogers chained him to four other enslaved persons and headed for the Ohio River and Tennessee. Neal was able to free his bonds and killed Rogers at the mouth of the Kanawha River.
There were no settlements along the west side of the Ohio River. Neal and the others people Rogers intended to sell into slavery had no experience with the wilderness. They decided to cross the river into Virginia where they reported the incident to the nearest authorities which were in Kanawha County, Virginia.
Rogers was a partner of William Sanders of Tennessee. Sanders owned a large amount of property that had been in the possession of the late Rogers. Sanders quickly gathered his family and moved to Kanawha County, Virginia. The Sanders family settled on Mud River in the area that became Cabell County. At that time William Sanders and his sixteen year old son, Samson, attended trials in at the nearby courthouse until the case of Jack Neal was finally settled. Escaping from his captors and a potential miscarriage of justice, Neal was allowed to live with Sanders family.
Eldridge, Carrie: Cabell County's Empire for Freedom, The Manumission of Sampson Sanders Slaves.
Kanawha County Court Minutes 1801-1802
Henry & William Ruffner Papers, privately held, Historical Foundation of the Presbyterian and Reformed Churches, Montreat, NC