Captain James Cook Monument
Backstory and Context
James Cook, who worked his way up
to Captain Cook, was a very hard-working man. Apprentice, navigator, and adventurer
were just a few of the jobs he obtained over the years. He went on three important
voyages during his lifetime, and was the first Englishman to explore many distant lands.
Born in Yorkshire, England on October 27, 1728, James Cook was bound to farm his entire life until he decided to join the Royal Navy during the 1750s. First, he was an apprentice on coal-carrying ships, and eventually he worked his way up to “King’s Surveyor”. During his time as the King’s Surveyor, he was given command of the ships that explored Newfoundland, his first of three voyages.
Captain Cook’s first expedition, named the Endeavour, was to New Zealand, Australia, and islands in the Pacific Ocean, including Hawaii. He successfully completed this expedition between 1768 and 1771, and was honored by his grateful nation following his return. Also, he was made a fellow of the Royal Society and was officially received by the King due to his efforts. With that credibility, Cook set off yet again one year later, but this time to Antarctica. During this adventure, he discovered several island chains and revealed that the assumed southern land, also known as Terra Australis Incognita, did not exist. Before this voyage, he was only a Master, but he was honorably named Captain during this trip, a title which he carried into his final voyage in 1776. This time, he ventured to North America and Alaska, but his original plans were not successful. He thought he could find a route to the Atlantic Ocean, also known as the fabled Northwest Passage from North America to Europe to the Orient, but instead sailed south through the islands of Hawaii.
Captain James Cook was killed by Hawaiian natives in 1779, amidst his last voyage. He is now known for being one of the greatest explorers and navigators in the world. Additionally, he fed his crew a healthy diet which prevented them from getting a deadly disease called scurvy, a reason all three of his voyages were successful. His statue, which faces the sea in Anchorage, Alaska, was created by Derek Freeborn. The statue was gifted by the British Petroleum Company in 1976 in celebration of the United States, following the statue in Whitby, England, where Cook began he sea career.
“Captain James Cook.” Geographical (Campion Interactive Publishing), vol. 74, no. 7, July 2002, p. 75. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=7255681&site=ehost-live.
“James Cook.” Biography.com, A&E Networks Television, 16 May 2016, www.biography.com/people/james-cook-21210409.
Jenner, Robin G. “CAPTAIN JAMES COOK The First Voyage of Discovery.” History Magazine, vol. 17, no. 5, June 2016, pp. 43–46. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=hia&AN=116068757&site=ehost-live.Lundberg, Murray. Captain James Cook in Alaska. ExploreNorth. . Accessed August 30, 2018. http://www.explorenorth.com/library/yafeatures/bl-Cook1.htm.