Nathaniel Friend House
The Nathaniel Friend House is a beautiful surviving example of Federal architecture in Petersburg.
The Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) documented the Nathaniel Friend House in 1968. Photo by HABS.
The HABS also noted that the house is "an excellent example of the combination commercial-living row [houses] typical of the period." Photo by HABS.
Backstory and Context
By 1815, Petersburg was Virginia's third largest city. That year, a "great fire" swept through downtown Petersburg, destroying nearly two-thirds of the city. As part of broad, ambitious efforts to rebuild, Friend constructed a brick house along Bollingbrook Street with a two-story outdoor kitchen and smokehouse in the backyard. Today, only the house stands. The National Register of Historic Places nomination writers called the Nathaniel Friend House "an outstanding example of Federal architecture," a style that flourished after the American Revolution. The Federal style's clean lines, symmetry, and rich brickwork helped characterize the young nation's urban landscape as classic and mature. Another Federal style building, Farmers Bank, was built next door to the Nathaniel Friend House in 1817. Together, these buildings evoke the Federal architectural style popular in Petersburg in the early nineteenth century.2
The house stayed in the Friend family for around 100 years until it was passed through several hands. The first floor housed a number of shops over the years, including a general store and shoe repair shop. In the mid-twentieth century, Frank and Susie Hudson owned a battery and ignition shop on the first floor and resided in the top floors of the house. The house sat vacant for a while and, in 1968, was surveyed as part of an effort throughout Petersburg to document historic buildings. The Historic American Buildings Survey determined its condition "poor" but still retaining its architectural character. Then, the house, like Farmers Bank, was acquired by the Fort Henry Branch of the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, now known as Preservation Virginia, and restored as part of an effort in the late twentieth century to promote tourism. Currently, it is home to a restaurant and lounge. The Nathaniel Friend House serves a new commercial purpose as historic preservation and revitalization continue in downtown Petersburg.3
2. National Park Service, "Nathaniel Friend House," National Register of Historic Places; National Park Service, "Petersburg Old Town Historic District," National Register of Historic Places; Poppeliers and Chambers, What Style is it?, 26-31; "Federal (Adam)," Architectural Styles of America and Europe.
3. National Park Service, "Nathaniel Friend House," National Register of Historic Places; National Park Service, "Nathaniel Friend, Jr. House;" Historic American Buildings Survey; Hill's Petersburg City Directory (1958), 190.
Barnes, L. Diane. Artisan Workers in the Upper South: Petersburg, Virginia, 1820-1865. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2008.
Eastman, Tamar J. The Great Fire of Petersburg, Virginia. Charleston, SC: The History Press, 2016.
"Federal (Adam)." Architectural Styles of America and Europe. Accessed September 2017. https://architecturestyles.org/federal-adam/
Hill's Petersburg City Directory. Richmond: Hill Directory Company, Inc., 1958.
National Park Service. "Nathaniel Friend House." National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form. Prepared by Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission staff. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, Department of the Interior, 1976. http://www.dhr.Virginia.gov/registers/Cities/Petersburg/123-0066_Friend,Nathaniel,House_1976_Final_N...
National Park Service. "Nathaniel Friend, Jr. House." Historic American Buildings Survey. Prepared by James C. Massey and Randall J. Biallas. National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1968. From Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (HABS VA-651) http://cdn.loc.gov/master/pnp/habshaer/va/va0300/va0355/data/va0355data.pdf
National Park Service. "Petersburg Old Town Historic District." National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form. Prepared by Virginia Historic Landmarks Commission staff. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, Department of the Interior, 1980. http://www.dhr.Virginia.gov/registers/Cities/Petersburg/123-0097_Petersburg_Old_Town_HD_Final_Nomina...
Poppeliers, John C. and S. Allen Chambers, Jr. What Style is it? A Guide to American Architecture. John C. Wiley and Sons: 2003.