Backstory and Context
Geologically, Cades Cove is a type of valley known as a "limestone window," in which weather and time wear away limestone, leaving a flat land valley surface and rich, fertile soil, attractive to native American populations as a seasonal hunting camp and to early Anglo settlers for farming.
The earliest white settlement in the area was established in 1818, with the Oliver and Tipton families setting up cottages . and the Cable family erecting a series of dikes and sluices to drain the swampy land for more permanent and larger agriculture. By 1850, the population of the area was 671, and by that time various religious, economic, agricultural, and cultural institutions (a church, post office, a grist mill) had been established, making Cades Cove an early piece of civilization in the Smoky Mountains.
Visitors hiking, driving, or biking around the loop of Cades Cove can view some of the original buildings that composed the settlement and other buildings that evolved from them. Two of these, Cades Cove Primitive Baptist Church, established in 1827, and Cades Cove Methodist Church, founded in 1902, allowed settlers a much easier commute to Sunday morning sermons. The John Cable Grist Mill was one of several Mill Creek-powered mills that served Cades Cove residents between 1850 and 1870. The cabin in which the Cable family lived, and the cabins belonging to the Tipton and the Oliver families are also viewable around the loop. The Olivers, in particular, were one of the earliest families in the area, arriving at a time when no treaties allowed settlers to establish homesteads on Indian land. Though at the time of their arrival there were no treaties allowing them to move in on Indian land or into the Great Smoky Mountain region. Fortunately, Native Americans graciously assisted the family in their survival, to their own detriment, ultimately, as more and more settlers took over the land in the Great Smoky Mountains region.