In 1857, John Brown began raising money and campaigning in support of a plan to foster a massive slave uprising and secure a place where former slaves and others could live in peace. Brown was able to secure the backing of six prominent abolitionists, today known as the Secret Six. He recruited a small army of twenty-two men and rented a farm in Sharpsburg, Maryland in order to prepare for a raid on the arsenal that would provide arms for any slave who would join Brown's force.
On October 16, 1859, John Brown and his men crossed the Potomac River into Virginia ( which is now known as Harper's Ferry) in an attempt to start an armed revolt against slavery. Brown's men easily overpowered the watchmen at the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Bridge, United States Armory and Arsenal, and the Rifle Factory. However, Brown allowed a train to pass through the area, leading to news of the attack and the quick deployment of nearby Marines.
By the morning of October 17th, Brown and his men were surrounded by Marines under the command of Colonel Robert E. Lee and Lieutenant J. E. B. Stuart. On the morning of October 19, 1859, the marines accepted the surrender of Brown and his men. John Brown was tried for murder and treason in the state of Virginia and was found guilty on November 2, 1859. Brown was sent to the gallows on December 2, 1859.