On May 19, 1919, soon after its completion, this 21st Street Viaduct was named the Rainbow Viaduct in tribute to Alabama’s famous 167th Infantry of the Rainbow Division. Renowned for bravery and honor, the 167th was the nation’s only regiment in World War I referred to by its home state – “The Alabama.” Made up of men from throughout Alabama, including a large number from Birmingham, this regiment had to its credit the following brave deeds, among countless others:
Advanced furthest its German lines – to Sedan
Took the first German prisoners captured by Americans
Only Rainbow Regiment to achieve two Honor Medals
Fought in trenches two days longer than any other American regiment
The only Southern regiment in the first army at occupation on Rhine, the 167th fought in the battles of Luneville, Baccarat, Esperance-Souain, Champagne-Marne, Red Cross Farm following Chateau-Thierry, Alsne-Marne, St. Mihiel, Essey-Paunes, Meuse-Argonne, Sedan.
On June 21, 1918 Supreme Commander Foch asked General Pershing to
move the “Rainbow” Division to the Champagne-Marne to help the French in
the coming battle to save Paris. The entire 42nd Division took part in
that defense that stopped the German “Peace Offensive” on July 15, 1918.
The brunt of the Central Powers assault in the Champagne was taken by
the 167th (Alabama) Infantry Regiment and the 109th French Regiment. For
that battle, Colonel Screws replaced Major Hartley A. Moon as commander
of his 2nd Battalion with Captain Everett H. Jackson, placing Jackson’s
PC in the command post of his French counterpart. It was the first
change of leadership in the Alabama regiment and all three battalions of
the 167th were deemed by French commanders to have fought fiercely and
marker, topped by the Adrian helmet used by the French troops in the
second half of WWI, commemorates the place where Allied troops stopped
the German during the Champagne battle. The marker is placed at about
the height of the Intermediate Line where two French companies and
Companies E and F of the Alabama 167th withheld severe attacks launched
by the Germans.
General Gouraud said that the “Rainbow” put a new spirit into France. Foch immediately put the victorious Allied Army on the offensive.
Four days after winning in the Champagne, he ordered a Franco-American
drive northeast from the town of Chateau-Thierry. The 167th (Alabama),
with its sister regiment in the 84th Brigade, the168th (Iowa) on its
right flank, led the “Rainbow” Division push into a great battle at
Croix Rouge Farm on July 26, 1918. There the Alabama regiment lost 162
killed, including 3 Lieutenants and 2 Captains, company commanders. More
than 1,000 from the 167th (Alabama) were wounded. But their victory
forced the Germans to retreat to positions on the east of the Ourcq
River, about six miles from the Croix Rouge Farm.
On the next day, July 27, the weakened 167th (Alabama) and 168th
(Iowa) regiments of the 84th Brigade were joined by the “Rainbow’s”
fresh 83rd Brigade. Regiments abreast, the full “Rainbow” Division
attacked across the Ourcq River on the morning of July 28, and opened
the battles on the hills east of the river. Corporal Sidney Manning of
Company G of the 167th (Alabama) was recommended for the Congressional
Medal of Honor for his heroic work in that morning’s attack.
The regimental operations officer, Captain Mortimer H. Jordan, M.D.
was wounded that day and died in a field hospital. Command of F Company,
Gadsden, passed twice that morning due to wounds. Command of G.
Company, Ozark, passed due to wounds. Command of the combined 1st and
3rd battalions was passed from Major Dallas B. Smith to Captain Ravee
Norris. Lieutenant Colonel Bare, regimental executive officer was gassed
and evacuated. Major Carroll took over command of the forward PC from
him but was wounded. Captain Herman W. Thompson, commanding H Company,
was seriously wounded and evacuated.
The 84th Brigade’s commander, Brigadier General Robert A. Brown was
relieved during the battle by Colonel Douglas MacArthur on the
recommendation of Major General Menoher, commander of the “Rainbow.” The
168th (Iowa) regiment’s commander, Colonel E. R. Bennett, was replaced
by Lieutenant Colonel Mathew A. Tinley. An Iowa battalion commander was
After four days of hard fighting by both sides, the Germans began a
massive retreat toward the Rhine River on August 2, 1918. Casualties in
this operation for the “Rainbow” were 184 officers and 5,469 men.
The 42nd Division, reequipped and brought back to full strength, was
ordered to take part in the all American attack at St. Mihiel. After
more than a week of night marches to the jump off position, the division
attacked on September 11, 1918, delivering the main blow in the
direction of the heights overlooking the Madine River. Just as at the
Croix Rouge Farm, C Company and D Company of the 167th (Alabama) led the
“Rainbow” assault force. The attack was a total surprise to the Germans
and came at a time when they had begun to retreat. The 167th objective
was accomplished by nightfall of the first day. Thirteen American
divisions, about half a million men, took part in the highly successful
The Rainbow Viaduct is Dedicated to the Memory of the Jefferson County
Members of the 167th Infantry, Rainbow Division of Whom were Killed in Action or Died of Wounds in the World War 1914 - 1918.