The Spanish American War of 1898 and the Philippine War were milestones in America's expansionist role in the world. Although the U.S. declared victory in the Spanish-American War, Filipino insurgents continued to fight for their independence – this time, against the United States. That conflict – the Philippine-American War – began in 1899 and lasted until the U.S. military quelled the rebellion in 1902. Again, U.S. troops were deployed through the Presidio in San Francisco. Thus, in both the Spanish-American War and the Philippine - American War, military personnel were sent through one former Spanish colony (San Francisco) to fight military personnel in another former Spanish colony (the Philippines).
In the year following the conclusion of the Philippine-American War, the “Dewey Monument”, a collaboration of sculptor Robert Aitken and architect Newton Tharp, was dedicated in San Francisco’s Union Square. The monument commemorates Admiral George Dewey’s defeat of the Spanish in Manilla Bay in the Philippines, and celebrates the American victory in the Spanish-American War.